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Current Affairs search results for tag: science-and-technology
By admin: Sept. 14, 2022

Gaganyaan first testflight in 2022: Dr Jitendra Singh

Tags: Science and Technology National News

Union Minister of State (Independent Charge ) for  Science and Technology  Dr Jitendra Singh has said that India's first human space-flight mission Gaganyaan is expected to be launched in 2024.

He said that the government had planned the human space flight in 2022 itself to commemorate the 75 years of Independence but due to Covid it couldn't be completed.

The first test flight of the mission is expected this year. The first test flight will be followed by sending a female-looking spacefaring humanoid robot — Vyom Mitra — in outer space likely next year,

Gaganyaan Mission 

  • The Gaganyaan mission was announced by the Prime Minister in his independence day speech in 2018 with a budget of Rs 10,000 crore.
  • Four Indian Air Force pilots have been identified as crew for the mission who are undergoing training in Russia.
  • Indian Space research Organisation (ISRO) intends to send at least 2 astronauts in low earth orbit in 2024.

Human Space Flight 

  • At present only three countries, the United States, Russia and China have the capability to launch manned space missions.
  • The first person to go into space was Yury Gagarin of the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 onboard the Vostok Rocket.
  • The first woman to go into space was Valentina Tereshkova of the Soviet Union on 16 June 1963  onboard the Vostok 6 Rocket.
  • Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma is the only Indian to go into space. He was part of the Soviet mission aboard Soyuz T-11 on 3 April 1984. 
  • Humans who travel in space are called astronauts. The Chinese call them Taikonauts and the Russians call them Cosmonauts.

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 

  • It was set up on 15 August 1969
  • It is India's national space agency.
  • Headquarters: Bengaluru
  • Chairman: S. Somanath
By admin: Aug. 30, 2022

Delhi police is the first police force in the country to make forensic investigation mandatory in all crimes where punishment provided is of more than six years

Tags: National Science and Technology State News

Delhi Police on 30 August 2022 decided to make forensic investigation mandatory in all crimes where punishment provided is of more than six years.

The decision was taken after the Union Home Minister Amit Shah directed the Delhi police to increase the conviction rate higher on 30 August 2022.

Delhi police has become the first State or Union territory’s police in the country to do so.

Forensic science is the application of scientific methods in the investigation and collection of evidence in criminal or civil matters.

According to the Delhi Police “Delhi Police has already integrated the criminal justice system (ICJS) with forensic science investigation and have also collaborated with National Forensic Sciences University (NFSU), Gandhinagar, Gujarat  to train and guide investigating officers to make watertight cases against accused persons”.

Indian Penal Code 1860 (IPC)

The Indian Penal Code is a criminal code which covers all the aspects of criminal law in India. It is applicable all over India.

It was passed in 1860 and was made applicable from 1 January 1862. 

It defines the crime and provides punishment for the crime committed.

It is divided in 23 Chapters and 511 sub sections 

Delhi Police

National Capital region Territory of Delhi is a Union Territory with a legislative Assembly, with a Chief Minister.

However the Delhi Police comes under the jurisdiction of the Union Government.

Delhi Police Commissioner: Sanjay Arora 

By admin: Aug. 31, 2022

Serum Institute to Launch India's First Cervical Cancer Vaccine on 1 September

Tags: National Science and Technology

The indigenously-developed India's first Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus vaccine (qHPV) against cervical cancer will be launched by the Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology Jitendra Singh on 1 September, 2022.

Who has developed the vaccine :

  • The cervical cancer vaccine, cervavac, has been developed by the Serum Institute of India (SII) and the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India.
  • The Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) on 12 July 2022 granted market authorisation to Serum Institute of India (SII) to manufacture the indigenously-developed India's first Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus vaccine (qHPV) against cervical cancer.

What is HPV ?

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract. 
  • According to the United States, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, all women are at risk for cervical cancer.
  •  It occurs most often in women over age 30. Long-lasting infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. If detected early it is highly treatable. 
  • The SII vaccine is expected to give coverage of about 90 percent against the papillomavirus.

Prevalence in India :

  • Cervical cancer in India ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women between 15 and 44 years of age, after breast cancer.
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO) data, 41, 91,000 women have died due to cervical cancer in India since 2019.


Who should get the HPV vaccine :

  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the HPV vaccination is routinely recommended at age 11 or 12. 
  • The vaccination can be started at 9 years and can be given at the age of 26 years.
  • The vaccine developed by SII can be administered to those in the 9 to 26 age group.

Existing vaccines in India :

  • Two vaccines licensed globally are available in India. 
  • Gardasil vaccine developed by Merck and Cervarix vaccine of GlaxoSmithKline.
  •  Each dose of Gardasil vaccine cost Rs 2,800 per dose while the Cervarix cost Rs 3,299.
  • The SII vaccine is expected to be much cheaper.
By admin: Aug. 24, 2022

Nigeria introduces Bharat Biotech's ROTAVAC vaccine to immunise children

Tags: Science and Technology

Bharat Biotech International Limited on 24 August 2022 has announced that Nigeria has introduced its rotavirus oral vaccine (called ROTAVAC) to immunise its children from the life-threatening diarrheal disease which currently accounts for 14 percent of all childhood rotavirus deaths globally.

BBL is an international subsidiary of the Hyderabad based Bharat Biotech ltd.

Bharat Biotech developed the first generation, rotavirus vaccine, ROTAVAC, under a Public-Private Partnership with the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, and 16 other international partners, making it the largest ever social innovation project for public health.

Rotavirus related mortality in Nigeria 

Nigeria has the second-highest number of rotavirus deaths in the world. Rotavirus infection causes about 50,000 child fatalities under the age of five each year in Nigeria.  

Rotavirus 

Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhoea and other intestinal symptoms. It is a genus in the family of Reoviridae. It’s very contagious and is the most common cause of diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. 

It is called a rota because its shape is round and wheel in Latin stands for rota.  

 According to the World Health Organization, Rotaviruses are the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhoea in children aged less than 5 years globally. Around 40% of the diarrhoea related deaths, globally, in the children under 5 years of age is due to rotavirus.

By admin: Aug. 23, 2022

Rising cases of highly contagious tomato flu in India raises concern

Tags: Science and Technology State News

The Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD), also known as the Tomato Fever has become a cause of concern for health experts as it rapidly spreads among children in India.  According to a recent study published in the prestigious British  Medical Journal , Lancet Respiratory Journal, the cases of  HFMD cases among children in India are rising and are a cause of concern, India. 

Currently 82 confirmed cases of tomato fever are there in India in children below  the age of 5 years.

Where was it first detected in India  

The tomato flu was first identified in Kerala's Kollam district on May 6, 2022. 

What causes Tomato Flu 

  • Scientists have determined that a virus is the source of the fever, but they have not yet determined which specific virus family it belongs to.
  • The infectious disease is caused by intestinal viruses and is rare in adults as they usually have immune systems strong enough to defend them from the virus.
  • The study said the tomato flu virus shows symptoms similar to those of Covid-19 but the virus is not related to SARS-CoV-2. Rather than a viral infection, tomato flu could be an after-effect of chikungunya or dengue fever in children.

Why it is called as Tomato flu 

  • The viral illness is known as ‘Tomato Fever’ because persons who contract it experience rashes and blisters all over their bodies that are red and resemble tomatoes. Doctors have warned that children under the age of five are most affected by the condition. The illness is also known as ‘Tomato Flu’.
  • Is Tomato fever contagious
  • The Tomato fever or Hand Foot Mouth Disease (HFMD) is highly contagious and spreads through contact.  It is not considered life threatening. So far, no vaccine is available for the virus.

Spread of tomato fever in India 

According to Lancet, other affected areas in Kerala are Anchal, Aryankavu, and Neduvathur. 

According to the Lancet report, tomato fever cases have been  reported from Tamil Nadu, Odisha  and Karnataka also.

Treatment 

The treatment for tomato flu is similar to the treatment of chikungunya, dengue and hand, foot, and mouth disease. Patients are advised to isolate, rest, plenty of fluids, and hot water sponge for the relief of irritation and rashes.

By admin: Aug. 22, 2022

Norway buys 49 pc stake in solar power plant in Rajasthan being developed by Italian Enel Company

Tags: Economy/Finance Science and Technology State News

The Norwegian embassy in India on 22 August 2022 has announced that it has bought a 49% stake in a solar power plant in Rajasthan being developed by Italian company Enel.

Thar Surya Project 

The Thar Surya 1 project is being built in Bikaner, Rajasthan by Enel Green Power India, a subsidiary of Enel S.p.A, Italy.

The 420 MW solar project is expected to generate more than 750 GWh of renewable energy annually, which will be sufficient to curb yearly emissions of about 681,600 tons of carbon dioxide.

Norway Investment 

Norway will invest in the project through Norwegian Climate Investment Fund managed by Norfund and Norway’s largest pension company KLP. 

The combined investment of Norwegian companies will be Rs 2.8 billion.

Norfund has been set up by the Government of Norway and it intends to allocate $1 billion to the Climate Investment Fund in the next five year with India being a major investment destination 

Solar Power target in India

The Government of India has set a target of 300 GW of installed solar power capacity by 2030.

By admin: Aug. 22, 2022

Indigenous hydrogen fuel cell bus developed by CSIR, KPIT launched in Pune

Tags: National Science and Technology State News

India's first hydrogen fuel cell bus developed by the CSIR-NCL (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- National Chemical Laboratories) Pune and private firm KPIT Limited was unveiled on 21 August 2022 by the Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology Jitendra Singh in Pune.

Feature of the non-polluting bus 

  • The fuel cell will use hydrogen and air to generate electricity to power the bus. 
  • The combination of air and hydrogen will produce water as a by-product which will be released by the bus. 
  • It is a green technology and environment friendly. According to the government a single diesel bus plying on long distance routes typically emits 100 tons of carbon dioxide per year and there are over a million such buses in India.
  • The operational cost of hydrogen fuel cell trucks is lower than ones run on diesel. 
  • This will help India in meeting the carbon reduction target committed by India by 2070.

Other Hydrogen fuel project in India 

  • On 30 July 2022 the Prime Minister inaugurated the NTPC Green Hydrogen Mobility Project at Leh, Ladakh.
  • It is a pilot project which aims to run five Fuel Cell Buses in and around Leh. This pilot project would be the first deployment of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles for public use in India.
  • Amara Raja Power Systems is setting up India’s first green hydrogen fuelling station in Leh, Ladakh for the National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPC). It will power the NTPC’s Hydrogen fuel buses.

India’s First India's first green hydrogen-based advanced fuel cell electric vehicle 

Toyota Kirloskar Motor ltd. earlier launched India’s first green hydrogen-based advanced fuel cell electric car, Toyota Mirai. 

 It uses hydrogen as a fuel.

By admin: Aug. 20, 2022

World Mosquito Day

Tags: Science and Technology Important Days

Every year 20th August is observed as World Mosquito Day. It marks the anniversary of the discovery that mosquitoes transmit the parasite that causes malaria.

Background 

On this day in 1897, the British doctor Sir Ronald Ross discovered the malaria parasite in the stomach tissue of an Anopheles mosquito. His work later confirmed that mosquitoes are the vector which carries this devastating parasite from human to human.

Theme 

The theme of the World Mosquito day 2022 is : Strike back at Mosquitoes.

Mosquito borne disease still a grave health hazard 

According to the World Health Organization, malaria alone leads to approximately 400,000 deaths annually. Other mosquito-borne diseases, even when non-fatal, can be devastating for patients. For example, Chikungunya causes crippling joint pain, and Zika infection in pregnant women can cause severe birth abnormalities.

Development of Malaria vaccine 

  • The mosquito-borne disease with the greatest global impact is malaria. Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for the most prevalent and severe cases of malaria, is transmitted from person-to-person by Anopheles mosquitoes, which are widespread throughout tropical regions of the world. 
  • British Pharma company GSK has developed the world's first malaria vaccine RTS,S  and it has been approved by .World Health Organization .
  • The RTS,S malaria vaccine is the first-ever vaccine against a parasitic disease, acting against Plasmodium falciparum.  
By admin: Aug. 18, 2022

India’s first E-Double Decker air conditioned bus unveiled in Mumbai by Nitin Gadkari

Tags: Science and Technology Person in news State News National News

The Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari unveiled India’s first e-E-Double Decker air conditioned bus in Mumbai on 18 August 2022.

  • The Switch EiV 22 bus has been developed by Switch Mobility Ltd.
  • The bus is equipped with the latest technology, ultra-modern design and highest safety and best in class comfort features.
  • Speaking on the occasion, Mr. Gadkari said that there is a need to transform the country's transport system from a long term perspective. 
  • He said, with focus on reforming urban transport, the government is trying to build a low carbon footprint and high passenger density integrated EV mobility ecosystem.

Make in India product 

  • The new electric double-decker bus will be the world's first - semi low floor, air conditioned, electric double-decker with wider door on rear overhang and a rear staircase. 
  • The double decker has a lightweight aluminium body construction, which offers higher passenger-to-weight ratio and a competitive cost per km, per passenger.
  • The bus has been designed and manufactured in India by Switch Mobility Ltd.

 Bus to be operated by BEST

  • The bus will be operated by the public transport operator in Mumbai, BEST.
  • BEST has already given an order of 200 such buses to Switch India. 
By admin: Aug. 17, 2022

NTPC Commissions Kawas Solar PV Project in Gujarat

Tags: National Science and Technology State News

India’s largest power producing company NTPC commissioned its 56 MW Kawas Solar Photovoltaic (PV) in Kawas, Gujarat on 15 August 2022.  Now the total installed commercial capacity of the company stands at 69454 MW.

Green power push of NTPC

  • NTPC which started its journey as a coal based thermal power plant is now diversifying into renewable green energy so as to reduce carbon emission and reduce its carbon footprints.
  • It has become the world’s first major energy company to declare its Energy Compact goals. 
  • It has collaborated with Niti Aayog to achieve the ‘net zero’ targets. 
  • To achieve this target it is installing renewable energy projects in its existing stations as well as putting up green field renewable energy projects.
  • The Company has planned 262 MW floating solar on over 1300 acres of its reservoir area by installing over 9, 50,000 PV modules at its various stations out of which 242 Mega Watt has been commissioned.
  • This includes the country’s largest floating solar of 100 MW at Ramagundam in Telangana, 92 MW at Kayamkulam in Kerala, and 25 MW each at Simhadri, Andhra Pradesh, and Kawas in Gujarat.

Future Renewable energy target of NTPC 

  • The NTPC Group plans to achieve 60 Giga Watt of renewable energy by 2032. 
  • Presently, NTPC has 2.3 GW of commissioned renewable capacity with 3.9 GW under implementation and execution. 
  • NTPC also has 4.9 GW of renewable energy capacity under tendering process which will further bolster the green energy portfolio of India’s largest power producer.

NTPC 

  • The  NTPC which was earlier known as National Thermal Power Corporation of India is owned by the Government of India. It was set up in 1975.
  • It operates India’s largest power plant, Vindhyachal Thermal Power Station, in Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Vindhyachal Thermal Power Station in the Singrauli district of Madhya Pradesh, with an installed capacity of 4,760MW, is currently the biggest thermal power plant in India. It is a coal-based power plant owned and operated by NTPC.
  • Headquarters: New Delhi

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